Liturgical Occasion / Feast
Incipit / Fulltext
Standardized spelling
CAO Concordances
Cantus ID Numbers

Marginalia, Other information:  This field, ordinarily left blank, has been utilized in some records to clarify the location of a chant on the page or folio side.  These chants are often later additions to the source, and have been identified as follows:

    L    written in the left margin
    R    written in the right margin
    T    written in the top margin
    B    written in the bottom margin
    A    added within the main body of the text

    X    erased or crossed out but still legible

    P    palimpsest; written on top of an earlier layer

The entry of these indications is at the discretion of the indexer.

Folio or Side: The actual number of the folio or page, as found in the manuscript or as supplied.
Leading zeros are used (as in 001).  The last of the four characters contains either "r" or "v" to identify the side of the folio on which a chant is found.  When unnumbered folios occur between numbered ones, this field contains lower case letters starting with "w" to mark the unnumbered ones.  For example, an unnumbered folio after 100 is designated as 100w for the recto and 100x for the verso.  This preserves the manuscript order across sort sequences.  For manuscripts in which the numbering is by page this fourth character is left blank.

Sequence Number: A field that provides for each chant an indication of the order in which it appears on the page or folio side:  1 is the first chant, 2 is the second, and so on.  The presence of this field enables the user to sort the file back into manuscript order after it has been sorted into another order; it also makes the chant easier to find on the page.
A "99" in this field is used to hold a place for a reference to a lacuna that follows.  If the first item on the page or folio that comes after a lacuna is a chant that lacks its beginning, "0" is used as the number for it.

Liturgical Occasion / Feast Name: The name of the occasion on which the chant is sung, given in a style and spelling similar to that employed by Hesbert in volumes 3 and 4 of Corpus Antiphonalium Officii (CAO).
For chants to be sung within the octave of a feast, ",8" follows the name of the feast.  When there is a lacuna between folios of a manuscript, the word "LACUNA" appears here.

Office/Mass: An abbreviation for the liturgical service in which the chant is sung as follows:

     V     First Vespers
     C     Compline
     M     Matins
     L     Lauds
     P     Prime
     T     Terce
     S     Sext
     N     None
     V2    Second Vespers
     MI     Mass
     MI1     first Mass
     MI2     second Mass
     MI3     third Mass

Also employed are the following:

     D     Day Hours
     R     Memorial
     E     Antiphons for the Magnificat or Benedictus ("in evangelio")
     H     Antiphons based on texts from the Historia
     CA     Chapter
     X     Supplemental, paraliturgical, rarely-used, or other chants that do not fit into the usual categories

Genre: Identifies chants by type.

Click here for the abbreviations and their explanations.

Position: Identifies the liturgical role of a particular chant according to the system described below (all designations are aligned right--some computer programmes require the addition of spaces preceding the designations to fill out the three-character field).

In Lauds and Vespers, the antiphons for psalms are numbered in order:  these numbers normally represent the position in the Office.  Thus, the antiphon for the Benedicite is always "L A  4".  When more than five antiphons are given for the psalms of Lauds and Vespers, every effort is made to determine in which position they are intended to be sung.  When only one antiphon is provided for Lauds or Vespers and it is clearly the beginning of a series for that Office (as marked with a rubric such as "et reliquae"), that antiphon is numbered "1".  When a single antiphon is intended to be employed with all the psalms of Lauds or Vespers, it is marked "p".

In Offices (such as Terce) where only one chant of a particular genre is sung, the position is left blank.

In Matins, the antiphons and responsories are given a pair of numbers separated by a period.  The first number of each pair designates the nocturn; the second, the position of the chant within the nocturn.  Thus "1.2" indicates the second antiphon or the second responsory of the first nocturn.  When just one antiphon is provided for all the psalms of a nocturn, it is given a number that designates the nocturn, followed by a period and a space, thus: "1. " (for the first nocturn), "2. " (for the second), etc..  A Matins versicle is given a number that designates the nocturn in which it appears, followed by a period and a space.

The antiphons for Canticles are indicated by "M" (for the Magnificat), "B" (for the Benedictus), or "N" (for the Nunc dimittis).  "P" is used for a chant to be sung during a procession.  "R" is used for a chant that is sung as a memorial when the Office to which it is attached is specified; for example, an antiphon that is sung as a memorial after Lauds is "L A  R".  If the Office is not specified, "R" is used for the "Office" and the chants are numbered in sequence.

If more than one chant is provided for the same position, these are considered alternates and marked identically.  When an Office requires only one chant of a particular genre and two are given, the position fields for both are left blank.  For example, two invitatories for the same Matins service are both marked "M I   ".  An exception is made when several antiphons are given for the Magnificat (or Benedictus):  these are numbered "1M", "2M" (or "1B", "2B").  Processional chants are also numbered "1P", "2P", and so on.

Chants assigned to categories for which there is no position as such ("R", "E", "H", and "X") are numbered in sequence beginning "1", "2", and so on.  Some manuscripts do not indicate how the antiphons and responsories of Matins are divided up among the nocturns; for these indices, responsories and antiphons are numbered in series on each liturgical occasion.  When many antiphons are given for the Magnificat or Benedictus, and when the assignment to the one canticle or the other is not clear, these are numbered in series with the Office designated as "E."  In rare cases, when several antiphons are provided for Lauds and Vespers and their liturgical role cannot be determined exactly, these are also numbered in series.  When only one chant occurs in a position that would normally be numbered in series, "1" is omitted and the position is left blank.  Verses for antiphons and responsories, however, are always numbered "01," "02," etc.; even when there is only one verse, it is numbered "01".

Incipit / Fulltext:

It is sometimes the case that two chants have exactly the same text at their start but one continues with additional material.  In other cases, two or more chants may begin with the same text and then diverge.  For these chants, the incipit alone cannot distinguish between the versions; the user must refer to the chant ID number.

The occurrence of one or more "alleluias" is not considered a change in text unless "alleluia" is the first word of the chant.

Standardized Spelling:

In order for functional electronic searching by incipit, spelling is normalized as in volumes 3 and 4 of CAO.  The final authority (with a very few exceptions) is Lewis and Short, A Latin Dictionary (Oxford, 1879).  Some typical spellings are as follows:

       bracchium       caelum         genetrix
       exaltata        excelsis       sepulcro
       exsultemus      clipeo         jucunditatis
       hi (not "hii")
       exsilio (not "exilio")

       Hesbert's spelling Agathes becomes Agatha
       Jerusalem (always spelled this way)    
       Alleluia (not "alleluja")

A full list of Cantus standardized spellings, including names, is available upon request.

Grammar and case endings are those of the manuscript, as are verb tense and number.  Differences in wording from that in CAO are preserved. (An exception is made in the case of Toledo 44.1; in the index for this manuscript, some grammatical errors have been corrected, but changes in wording that are also clearly errors have been preserved.)  Punctuation is omitted.  An illegible word is represented by "--", and an illegible portion of a word by a single hyphen.

Capitalization is limited to proper names of persons and places, places of origin, and nationalities.  Words that are capitalized include:

       Sion      Israelita       Jesu Christe      Thebaeorum
       Libano    Chananaeae      Sunanimitis       Mediolanensium   
       Saba      Nazarenum       Jerusalem         Joannes Baptista 
       Judaei    Aquitaniae      Hebraeorum        Agaunensium

Words that are not capitalized include:

       paraclitus      magi      dominus           trinitas
       auster          pascha    paradisi          pharaone
       agnum           mater     filium            eli
       sabaoth         deus      christianitatis 
       seraphim        orientis

An asterisk (*) marks a chant that is given only in incipit.  Wherever possible the entire incipit is shown, with abbreviations resolved and the last word completed.  Occasionally an incipit is too long to fit in this field; in such cases, the asterisk follows the last word that fits in the space.

When the text of a chant consists of the word "alleluia" repeated several times, a lower-case Roman numeral indicates the number of repetitions, as in "Alleluia iii."  When the melody for such a chant has its source indicated in some way, that information is recorded in the following  manner: "Alleluia iv (In conspectu)."  If only the beginning of the chant is written out, the incipit is given as "Alleluia iv (In conspectu)*" no matter how many times the word "alleluia" actually appears at that point in the source.

In the case of versicles, the incipit given is only the first half:  that is, the incipit ends at the end of the versicle (or as much as fits) and does not include the response even when there is space for it.  A versicle is considered complete if this first half is given in full in the manuscript.

Chants not in CAO are treated exactly as CAO chants with regard to these guidelines.

CAO Concordances: Entries as necessary to indicate those manuscripts of both the Roman cursus surveyed in volume 1 (CGBEMV) and the monastic cursus surveyed in volume 2 (HRDFSL) of CAO in which the chant is found.

Sources representing the Roman cursus include:
C  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 17436 (ninth century, from Compiègne) [RISM: F-Pn lat. 17436]
G  Durham, Cathedral Library, B. III. 11 (eleventh century, from northern France) [RISM: GB-DRc B. III. 11]
B  Bamberg, Staatsbibliothek, lit. 23 (eleventh or twelfth century, from Bamberg) [RISM: D-BAs lit. 23]
E  Ivrea, Biblioteca Capitolare, 106 (eleventh century, from Ivrea) [RISM: I-IV 106]
M  Monza, Basilica di S. Giovanni Battista - Biblioteca Capitolare e Tesoro, C. 12/75 (eleventh century, from Monza) [RISM: I-MZ C. 12/75]
V  Verona, Biblioteca Capitolare, XCVIII (eleventh century, from Verona) [RISM: I-VEcap XCVIII]

Sources representing the monastic cursus include:
H  Sankt Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek, 390-391 (“Hartker antiphoner,” early eleventh century, from St. Gall) [RISM: CH-SGs 390-391]
R  Zürich, Zentralbibliothek, Rh. 28 (thirteenth century, from Rheinau) [RISM: CH-Zz Rh. 28]
D  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 17296 (twelfth century, from St. Denis) [RISM: F-Pn lat. 17296]
F  Paris, Bibliothèque nationale de France, lat. 12584 (twelfth century, from St. Maur-les-Fossés) [RISM: F-Pn lat. 12584]
S  London, The British Library, add. 30850 (eleventh century, from Silos) [RISM: GB-Lbl add. 30850]
L  Benevento, Biblioteca Capitolare, V 21 (late twelfth century, from San Lupo) [RISM: I-BV V. 21]

Cantus ID Number:  These 6-digit numbers (plus suffixes) have been created by Cantus in order that the large repertory of chants not included in CAO (i.e., not included in the twelve early antiphoners surveyed by Hesbert) might be cross-referenced across the database.

These CantusIDNumbers have been designed to follow both the past numbering practices of Cantus and the general numbering scheme created by Hesbert in CAO, with corresponding numerical prefixes for each genre of chant.

For example:

     00####  CAO numbers (where the CAO number is the last 4 digits plus applicable suffixes)
     90####  “standard” entries (doxology, Te deum, etc.) including illegible (formerly "can0000") and ambiguous (formerly "can9999") chants
     10####  Non-CAO Invitatories (I)

     20####  Non-CAO Antiphons (A) & Verses (AV)
     60####  Non-CAO Responsories (R) & Verses (V)

     80####  Non-CAO Versicles (W)

     83####  Non-CAO Hymns (H)

     85####  Non-CAO Varia (L, M & G)

     99####  Unknown Genres

Mode: The apparent mode of the chant.
This is normally a single number in the left-hand column of this field, with the values 1 through 8 indicating the mode in which the melody is found in this manuscript.  In deciding the mode of a chant, Cantus indexers take into account the final, the range, and any modal formula that may be associated with it, such as the verse of a responsory.  Some sources indicate the mode to which they assign a chant; where this does not coincide with the decision of the indexer, the latter is what appears in the index.

A question mark in the left-hand column is used to show that the mode was not identifiable; an asterisk (*) indicates that notation was not provided.  A lower-case "r" is used in this column to represent any of the simple formulas to which short responsories and versicles are sung.

A question mark in the right-hand column (following a mode number) indicates uncertainty concerning the modal assignment.  The letter "S" is used in this column for a responsory verse that is sung to a special melody rather than to the melodic formula typical of its mode; "T" indicates that a chant is written in transposition.

Differentia: This one- or two-digit number, or numbers and letters in combination, refers either to the differentia (the termination of the psalm tone to be employed in connection with a particular antiphon) or to the tone to be employed with an invitatory antiphon.

If numbers are used, a single-digit differentia number is placed as the second character of this field.  When tonary letters are used (as in Bamberg and Karlsruhe), a single letter appears as the first character.  If a combination of numbers and letters is used, the differentiae are provided with a 2-character code: the final pitch of the differentia pattern folllowed by an arbitrary number (as in "G1" or "D2").  In some of the southern German and Swiss manuscripts, the system found in those sources has been adopted:  these differentiae are indicated with a vowel (which represents the mode) followed by a consonant.  The differentiae in the Sarum Antiphoner correspond exactly to those in the Sarum Tonary (edited by W.H.Frere in The Use of Sarum) and the numbering system in the tonary is used in the index.  If no differentia is provided, an asterisk (*) appears as the second character.

In more recent index files, indications of ligation and liquescence have been added to the differentia codes to differentiate these patterns from others which employ the same pitches but appear in a distinct form within the manuscript folios.  See the individual manuscript "about" files for more details.

The numbering of differentiae does not carry over from one index file to another as each manuscript has its own system.

For the tonus peregrinus, a "P" is entered as the second character.

The codes for invitatory tones also appear in this field.  These reflect the musical cues written over the word "Venite" that appear after an invitatory antiphon, and also represent the tones themselves, whether partially or fully notated.  In most instances these carry over from one source to another: thus the tone coded as HS in one file is essentially the same as that called HS in another.  (The case is the same when tones are represented by certain numbers, for example, 3, 5, or 7.)  Exceptions to this practice are made for sources that have collections of tones that do not lend themselves to representation through the standard codes--Toledo 44.2, for example.  In the indices for these sources, the systems of symbols provided for invitatory tones are unique.  Refer to the "about" files for more details.

Extra: When an indexer desires to include non-standard information in a file, it is often placed in this field.  For example, in the Barnwell index, the "Extra" field records two additional distinctions (beyond mode and differentia) made by Frere in his classification of the antiphons in the Sarum repertory.  In the index of Toledo 44.2, this field is employed to record information about the differentiae.

Feast Code: This field contains a numerical code for each liturgical occasion or "feast."  Sorting on this field enables the user to isolate chants for the Temporale, chants for Sundays, chants for a certain day in the year, and so on.  These codes are described in detail in the Liturgical Occasion Table.

Siglum: A twenty-character field that identifies the manuscript or printed source.  This field is useful when one wishes to combine several indices and sort them together.  The abbreviations are modeled on the system developed for RISM.

Addendum:  This field contains extra information not normally included in the Cantus format.  For example, some of the manuscripts indexed by CANTUS contain a considerable overlap in repertory that is not represented in CAO.  These sources have been cross-referenced in this field.  For example, "XVI" has been added in the Cambrai 38 index to indicate a "non-CAO" chant in Cambrai 38 that also occurs in Camxvi, and a "non-CAO" chant in Toledo 44.2 that also occurs in Toledo 44.1 is identified with "44.1" in this field, and vice versa.  Note that these cross-references are given only for chant texts not included in CAO, and refer only to the text of the chant, not to the music.   This field has also been employed in selected manuscript indices to indicate psalm usages when they are specified.

Volpiano (melody field):  Volpiano font is a system for encoding a chant melody as a searchable text string. It was developed by Fabian Weber at the University of Regensburg under the direction of David Hiley. Volpiano font uses alphabetic and other symbols:

1 = treble/G clef

- = empty staff

a b c d e f g h j k l m ... = pitches

A B C D E F ... = small noteheads (for liquescents, quilismas, special neumes, etc.)

i = B-flat symbol (to be used in conjunction with the "j" third-line notehead)

To enter a melody, begin with a clef (non-transposing treble clef is standard), add three hyphens (staff lines), and type lower-case ASCII letters to represent the pitches of a melody. After the last pitch of a complete melody, add three hyphens and a double barline ("4").

SPACING: Enter three hyphens between words, two hyphens between syllables, and one hyphen between individual neumes which are sung on the same syllable.