F-Pnm lat. 12044
Antiphoner from the Monastery of St. Maur-des-Fosses. Early 12th century. French notation on four black lines with F and C clefs. Monastic cursus. 241 folios. Beginning and end of manuscript missing; one lacuna.
Liturgical occasions: 
Ff. 1r-143r: Winter Temporale and Sanctorale. 1r-5v, Third through Fourth Sundays of Advent; lacuna; 6r, Great "O" Antiphons; 7v, Christmas; 12r, Stephen; 29r, Ferial Office; 38v, Maurus; 51v, Conversion of Paul; 65r, Septuagesima; 71v, Ash Wednesday; 93v, Maundy Thursday; 99v, Easter; 115v, Ascension; 118v, Pentecost; 122r, Trinity; 125r, Summer Histories; 139r, Sundays after Pentecost. Ff. 143r-226r: Summer Sanctorale. 143r, John the Baptist; 146v, Babolenus; 154v, Paul; 161r, Arnulfus of Metz; 163v, Mary Magdalene; 170v, Laurence; 199v, All Saints; 206v, Dedication of a Church; 212r, Clement; 218v, Eligius; 224v, Translation of Babolenus. Ff. 226r-241v: Common of Saints.

F-Pn lat. 12044 and F-Pn lat. 12584 are both antiphoners from the Monastery of Saint-Maur-des-Fosses, which lies east of Paris, and was reformed by Cluny in the tenth century. Hesbert listed the contents of the latter manuscript in >Corpus Antiphonalium Officii, where it is manuscript "F." The two sources have much in common, but, because lat. 12044 is later, it includes material not found in the 11th-century lat. 12584. Lat. 12044 gives antiphons for the ferial Office that match those of the Cluny breviary (F-Pn lat. 12601). Lat. 12044 contains the following Offices not found in CAO: Babolenus, Arnulfus of Metz (also found in Analecta hymnica, vol. 52, pp. 332-4), Clement (Analecta hymnica vol. 52, pp. 337-40), and Eligius. It should be noted that the Office for Maurus is imperfect: f. 39 is largely torn away, and the chants on that leaf have been reconstructed by referring to CAO. Differentiae are assigned arbitrary numbers. Each chant not included in CAO is assigned an arbitrary number prefixed by "mau."

About the Invitatory Tones of F-Pn lat. 12044
Invitatory tones are represented in lat. 12044 in two different ways. The first time each of them occurs in the liturgical year, its first section ("Venite exsultemus" through "jubilemus ei") is written out with musical notation; when the tone appears again, it is given only as an incipit following the antiphon that is intended to introduce and alternate with it. As noted above, several pages are missing from the beginning of the book, and in a lacuna, and this appears to be the reason certain tones are not present in it. These tones must have been used with antiphons sung during the first few weeks of Advent, for they are referred to by incipit later on. Among them are the tones called BL, NE, FE, and 2 in the CANTUS database. The repertory of invitatory tones known to the copyist of lat. 12044 is a fairly conservative one: MO and FE for Monday and the other days of the ferial Office, BL for antiphons of mode 2 or of mode 4, for Sundays and various feasts; NE for other, more recent feasts; CH for Christmas and Epiphany; 5 for Easter, Ascension, Pentecost, and some Sundays; 7 for Sundays in Lent, other Sundays, and one feast; PA primarily for week days in Paschal Time, also during the octave of Ascension; 2 for some mode-2 invitatory antiphons (mostly intended for saints' days); and 3 for a small number of mode-3 antiphons. The one unusual feature is a tone that appeared on a page that is now damaged (f. 39r), where its incipit is no longer preserved. Fortunately the tone is given intact in the St. Denis antiphoner (F-Pn lat. 17296, f. 346v); and this confirms that the incipit that appears nine times in lat. 12044 is in fact that of the partially missing tone. This tone is combined with one antiphon of mode 2 and others of mode 4; the occasions on which it is sung range from St. Babolenus to St. John the Evangelist, Peter and Paul, the Assumption, and the Nativity of the Virgin. Tones used with antiphons of both mode 2 and mode 4 in this source are BL, MF, and NE.

Selected bibliography: 
  • Renaudin, A. "Deux antiphonaires de Saint-Maur: BN Lat 12584 et 12044." Etudes gregoriennes 13 (1972): 53-150.
  • Steiner, Ruth. "Reconstructing the Repertory of Invitatory Tones and their Uses at Cluny in the Late 11th Century." In Musicologie medievale: Notations et sequences, Table ronde de CNRS a l'IRHT d'Orleans-La Source, 10-12 Septembre 1982, ed. Michel Huglo, 175-82. Paris: CNRS, 1987.
Indexing notes: 
The index for F-Pn lat. 12044 was prepared by Keith Glaeske and Denise Gallo at The Catholic University of America.