Siglum: 
CH-E 121
Summary: 
Late tenth-century manuscript (about 960-970) from the abbey of Einsiedeln, known for its section with sequences of Notker from St. Gall. 600 pages. 105 x 160 cm. Adiastematic neumes. Monastic cursus.
Liturgical occasions: 
Pp. 1-428: Temporale/Sanctorale: p.1, Dom. 1 Adventus; p. 2, Dom. 2 Adventus; p. 5, Luciae; p. 7, Dom. 3 Adventus; p. 21, Dom. 4 Adventus; p. 22, Vigilia Nat. Domini; p. 24, Nativitas Domini; p. 33, Stephani; p. 37, Joannis Evang.; p. 41, Nat. Innocentium; p. 44, Silvestri; p. 46, Nativitas Mariae; p. 48, Dom. p. Nat. Dom.; p. 50, Epiphania; p. 53, Dom. 1 p. Epiphaniam; p. 55, Felicis; p. 57, Dom. 2 p. Epiph.; p. 59, Marcelli, Pont.; p. 62, Priscae; p. 63, Fabiani, Sebastiani; p. 67, Dom. 3. p. Epiph.; p. 69, Vincentii; p. 70, Agnetis; p. 71, Purificatio Mariae; p. 75, Agathae; p. 77, Valentini; p. 78, Gregorii; p. 80, Annuntiatio Mariae; p. 81, Dom. Septuagesimae; p. 84, Dom. Sexagesimae; p. 88, Dom. Quinquagesimae; p. 91, Fer. 4 Cinerum; p. 99, Dom. Quadragesimae; p. 117, Dom. 2 Quadragesimae; p. 131, Dom. 3 Quadragesimae; p. 146, Dom. 4 Quadragesimae; p. 163, Dom. de Passione; p. 180, Dom. in Palmis; p. 194, Fer. 5 in Cena Dom.; p. 196, Fer. 6 in Parasceve; p. 200, Sabbato Sancto; p. 205, Dom. Resurrectionis; p. 223, Sabbato in Albis; p. 225, Octava Paschae; p. 228, Dom. 3 p. Pascha; p. 231, Dom. 4 p. Pascha; p. 233, Dom. 5 p. Pascha; p. 234, Tiburtii, Valeriani; p. 235, Georgii; p. 238, In Letaniis maj.; p. 240, Vitalis Agricolae Mart.; p. 241, Philippi, Jacobi; p. 243, Alexandri et sociorum; p. 244, Gordiani, Epimachi; p. 245, Pancratii et sociorum; p. 246, In Dedicatione Eccl.; p. 248, Pudentianae Pudentis; p. 248, Ascensio Domini; p. 252, Dom. post Ascensionem; p. 253, Urbani; p. 253, Sabbato Pent.; p. 255, Dom. Pentecostes; p. 261, Marcellini, Petri; p. 262 Primi, Feliciani; p. 263, Cyrici; p. 265 Marci, Marcellini; p. 265, Gervasii, Protasii; p. 266, Vig. Joannis Bapt.; p. 267, Joannis Baptistae; p. 269, Joannis, Pauli; p. 271, Vig. Petri; p. 274, Petri; p. 277, Pauli; p. 279, Processi, Martiniani; p. 280, Septem Fratrum; p. 281, Octava Apostolorum; p. 281, Praxedis; p. 281, Apollinaris; p. 282, Simplicii et sociorum; p. 283, Abdonis, Sennis; p. 283, Stephani Pont.; p. 284, Sixti; p. 285, Felicissimi, Agapiti; p. 285, Cyriaci et Soc.; p. 286, Vigilia Laurentii; p. 288, Laurentii; p. 289, Tiburtii, Susannae; p. 290, Hippolyti; p. 291, Eusebii; p. 292, Assumptio Mariae; p. 293, Octava Laurentii; p. 293, Agapiti; p. 294, Timothei; p. 294, Hermetis; p. 295, Sabinae; p. 296, Felicis, Adaucti; p. 296, Adriani; p. 297, Gorgonii; p. 299, Proti, Hiacinthi; p. 299, Exaltatio Crucis; p. 299, Cornelii, Cypriani; p. 300, Nicomedis; p. 300, Luciae, Germiniani; p. 300, Vigilia Matthaei; p. 301, Matthaei; p. 301, Cosmae, Damiani; p. 301, Ded. Mont. S. Michaelis; p. 304, Vigilia Simonis, Judae; p. 304, Simonis, Judae; p. 305, Caesarii, Juliani; p. 305, Quat. Coronatorum; p. 306, Theodori Tiro; p. 306, Mennae; p. 306, Martini; p. 306, Caeciliae; p. 308, Clementis; p. 308, Chrysogoni; p. 309, Vigilia Andreae, p. 310, Andreae; p. 311, De Trinitate; p. 313-342: Dom. 2 post Pent.-Dom. 23 p. Pent.; p. 343, Incipiunt <i>Alleluia de Circulo anni;</i> p. 372 Hymni; pp. 377-416: Antiphonae; pp. 417-427: <i>Psalmi ad Communionem</i>; p. 428, chant incipits. Pp. 429-599: Sequences.
Description: 

This manuscript consists of two parts. The first part (pp.1-428) is the oldest complete surviving Gradual with adiastematic neumes. Besides the Mass chants, in order throughout the liturgical year, there are appendices of Alleluia verses, hymns, antiphons for several occasions, and a neumed versicularium (Psalmi ad Communionem). The first page(s) are missing; the Gradual starts with the Alleluia Ostende nobis Domine of the 1st Sunday in Advent. In the Gradual, the Temporale and Sanctorale are not separated. Verses for the offertories are given with neumes. The Gradual section is known for the extraordinary usage of litterae significativae within the neume notation.

The second part of the codex (pp. 429-599) contains sequences by Notker from St. Gall (ca. 840-912); throughout this section the text forms the main body of each page with adiastematic neumes in the margins.

The codex was written in Einsiedeln, likely for the third abbot of the cloister, Gregor the Englishman. Some chants are neumed by later hands. The pages of Einsiedeln 121 are numbered with a modern hand in black ink in the upper outside corners of the leaves (pp. 1-600); there is no original numbering. The manuscript includes various illuminated letters, mostly in the Gradual, and three large illustrations that cover the entire page: an ornamented monogram (p. 204: In die sancto Resurrectionis Domini ad Missam), the ornamented “Resurrexi” of Easter Sunday’s Introit (p. 205), and another ornamented monogram (p. 436: In nomine Domini incipit Lyber Ymnorum Notkeri).

Selected bibliography: 
  • Björkvall, Gunilla. “Liturgische Dichtung im Codex Einsiedeln 121, II: Die für Einsiedeln speziellen Texte.” In: Codex 121 Einsiedeln, Kommentar zum Faksimile, pp. 274-293. Ed. by Odo Lang. Weinheim, Germany: VCH. Acta Humaniora, 1991.
  • Crochu, Dominique. “Les antiennes de procession des rogations d’après le manuscrit d’Einsiedeln 121. Études grégoriennes 30 (2002): 61-95.
  • Duft, Johannes. “Notker Balbulus, Schöpfer der Sequenzen.” In: Codex 121 Einsiedeln, Kommentar zum Faksimile, pp. 189-206. Ed. by Odo Lang. Weinheim, Germany: VCH. Acta Humaniora, 1991.
  • Engels, Stefan. “Doppelneumierungen und das Zeichen ‘vel’ im Codex Einsiedeln 121.” Beiträge zur Gregorianik 39 (2005): 45-58.
  • Euw, Anton von. “Beschaffenheit und künstlerische Ausstattung der Handschrift.” In: Codex 121 Einsiedeln, Kommentar zum Faksimile, pp. 1-68. Ed. by Odo Lang. Weinheim, Germany: VCH. Acta Humaniora, 1991.
  • Fischer, Rupert. “Das Graduale des Codex 121 der Stiftsbibliothek Einsiedeln.” In: Codex 121 Einsiedeln, Kommentar zum Faksimile, pp. 69-118. Ed. by Odo Lang. Weinheim, Germany: VCH. Acta Humaniora, 1991.
  • Fischer, Rupert. “Einsiedeln, Stiftsbibliothek, Codex 121.” Beiträge zur Gregorianik 20 (1995): 47-60.
  • Haug, Andreas. “Der Sequentiarteil des Codex Einsiedeln 121.” In: Codex 121 Einsiedeln, Kommentar zum Faksimile, pp. 207-256. Ed. by Odo Lang, Weinheim, Germany: VCH. Acta Humaniora, 1991.
  • Husmann, Heinrich. “Zur Geschichte der Meßliturgie von Sitten und über ihren Zusammenhang mit den Liturgien von Einsiedeln, Lausanne und Genf.” Archiv für Musikwissenschaft 22 (1965): 217-247.
  • Jacobsson, Ritva. “Liturgische Dichtung im Codex Einsiedeln 121 I. Notkers Sequenzen und ihre Voraussetzungen.” In: Codex 121 Einsiedeln, Kommentar zum Faksimile, pp. 257-273. Ed. by Odo Lang. Weinheim, Germany: VCH. Acta Humaniora, 1991.
  • Joppich, Godehard. “Die rhetorische Komponente in der Notation des Codex 121 von Einsiedeln.” In: Codex 121 Einsiedeln, Kommentar zum Faksimile, pp. 119-188. Ed. by Odo Lang. Weinheim, Germany: VCH. Acta Humaniora, 1991.
  • Kohlhäufl, Josef. “Der Buchstabe ‘r’ im Codex Einsiedeln 121.” Beiträge zur Gregorianik 39 (2005): 37-43.
  • Lang, Odo. Codex 121 Einsiedeln. Two volumes: facsimile (I) and commentary (II), ed. by Odo Lang. Weinheim, Germany: VCH. Acta Humaniora, 1991.
  • Prassl, Franz Karl. “Scriptor interpres.” Beiträge zur Gregorianik 37 (2004): 55-72.
  • Prassl, Franz Karl. “Erste Spuren von Halbtonverschiebungen im Codex Einsiedeln 121 und in den St. Galler Handschriften.” Beiträge zur Gregorianik 38 (2004): 61-78.
  • Rumphorst, Heinrich. “Untersuchung zu zwei Formen des isolierten pes subbipunctis in den Handschriften E, C und L. Ein Beitrag zur Frage des Zusammenhangs zwischen Text und Melodie.” Études grégoriennes 19 (1980): 25-87.
  • Smits van Waesberghe, Joseph. Muziekgeschiedenis der Middeleeuwen, 2nd volume: Voorstudie II, Verklaring der letterteekens (Litterae Significativae) in het Gregoriaansche Neumenschrift van Sint Gallen: een onderzoek naar de historische waarde van den zoogenaamden Notkerbrief en naar den oorsprong en de beteekenis der letterteekens in St. Gallen. Tilburg: Bergmans, 1942. (Nederlandsche muziekhistorische en muziekpaedagogische studiën, Serie A).
Notes on the Inventory: 
The inventory for CH-E 121 was prepared by Mirka Maria Tiede (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen), with editorial assistance from Alessandra Ignesti (McGill University) and Inga Behrendt (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen). Manuscript description written by Inga Behrendt with editorial assistance from Debra Lacoste (University of Waterloo).
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