Siglum: 
EC-QP16BSF18
Summary: 
Fragmented Gradual used in the Church of San Francisco de Quito, Ecuador. Undated but likely from late 16th century; 148 folios, no index; 63x44cm with five-line staff in red ink alternating music and text; Vellum; good condition with some humidity; Rotunda Gothic script and square notation with F and C clefs. Phytomorphic initials on black, blue, yellow and red ink with filigree designs; cadels in black ink; broken brown leather over broken boards.
Liturgical occasions: 
Proper of the Time: ff. 1r - 60r Holy Week; ff. 60r - 63v Feria II post Pascha; ff. 64r - 67v Feria III post Pascha; ff. 67v - 71r Feria IV post Pascha; ff. 71r - 75r Feria V post Pascha; ff. 75r - 79r Feria VI post Pascha; ff. 79r - 82v Saturday in Easter Week; ff. 82v - 85r Low Sunday; ff. 85r - 88r Second Sunday after Easter; ff. 88v - 92r Third Sunday after Easter; ff. 92r - 96v Fourth Sunday after Easter; ff. 96v - 101v Fifth Sunday after Easter; ff. 101v - 105r Rogation Days; f. 105v Eve of Ascension (the Mass of dominica praeterita indicated with rubric); ff. 105v - 109v Ascension; ff. 109v - 113v Sunday within the Octave of Ascension; ff. 113v - 115v Whitsun Eve. New added folios: ff. Ir - Vr Credo; ff. Vv - VIr Duplex major feasts; ff. VIr - XIIIr the Office of Holy Cross Day; ff. XIIIr - XXIIr Annunciation of Mary; ff. XXIIr - XXIIv In week after Peter and Paul; ff. XXIIIr - XXIIIv Mary Magdalene; ff. XXIIIv - XXIVv Pro nec Virgine nec Martyre; ff. XXIVv - XXVIIIr the Mass of Holy Cross Day; ff. XXVIIIr - XXXv the Mass to San Diego of Alcalá [Didacus of Alcalá or S. Didaci]; f. XXXv the Office of Saint Joachim; f. XXXIr blank; ff. XXXIv - XXXIIIv the sequence Victimae paschali laudes followed by an invitatory for the Transfiguration; f. XXXIII is half broken.
Description: 

Since Didacus of Alcalá was canonized in 1588 by Pope Sixtus V and this manuscript includes a feast in his name, this manuscript was probably copied at the end of the 16th century, after the arrival of the Franciscan commission to Quito in 1534 led by Jodocus Rickye and Pierre Gosseal who founded the Church and Convent. A colophon at 148r (fragmented) suggests that part of the manuscript may have been completed in 1600, as the fragmented date ends with a partially visible D followed by C.

The manuscript includes chants for the Proper of the Time (Palm Sunday to Eve of Pentecost) as well as Masses and interpolated Offices for the Proper of the Time and Proper of the Saints, ending with an isolated sequence and invitatory. Of the 148 folios, ff. 1r–115v have Arabic foliation with red ink, whereas the latter folios have later added Roman foliation in black ink (ff. Ir–XXXIIIv). The index continues the Arabic numbering from 116r–148v rather than switching to the Roman foliation, but the Roman numbering is included in the Extra Field (any Roman numbering that is difficult to discern is indicated in square brackets, as in [1]). There is evidence of a different copyist’s hand on ff. 146v–148v for the sequence 'Victimae paschali laudes' and the invitatory for the Transfiguration, 'Summum regem gloriae' (fragmented). There are three lacunae: at 114v within Vigilia Pentecostes; 115r at the end of Vigilia Pentecostes and before a brief section of Mass Ordinary chants (Credo, Kyrie); and at 145v with a missing Magnificat antiphon for the feast of Joachim and before the concluding folios in a different hand. The index includes manuscript abbreviations in the Manuscript Spellings Text Field. Abbreviated letters are indicated using a circumflex (ex: ê). A such, the circumflex indicates the presence of an abbreviation, but not the specific abbreviatory mark. Consultation with the manuscript images can confirm which abbreviatory mark was employed by the scribe. The differentiae for the introit verses and antiphons are identified by differentia final and a sequentially-ordered numeral (ex: E1, E2). Variant versions of differentiae receive a letter suffix (ex: E1a, E2a). There is one fully notated invitatory tone: PA at 128v for Exspectationis BMV (an incipit only version occurs at 122v for Exaltatio Crucis).

This fragmented Gradual is part of a collection of thirty-eight liturgical manuscripts within the collection of the Church of San Francisco in Quito, including fifteen antiphonaries, four graduals, eight hymnals, ten psalters, and one ritual (see Estevez Monagas, 2019). Although much work has been done to address church music in Quito (including by American musicologist Robert M. Stevenson and Spanish musicologist Alejandro Massó), the plainchant manuscripts of Quito are an emerging area of research, with the index for EC-Qp16bsf18 being the first published inventory of a plainchant volume from an Ecuadorian church.

Selected bibliography: 

Coloma de Reed, Alicia. La Sociedad Filarmónica de Quito. 50 Años. Quito: Mariscal, 2002, p. 14.

Cordova de Salinas, Diego. Crónica Franciscana de las Provincias del Perú, ed. Lido G. Canedo. Mexico: Editorial Jus, 1957.

Estevez Monagas, Jesus. 'The Music Manuscripts in the Church of San Francisco de Quito: An Undocumented Collection', Fontes Artis Musicae, Vol. 66, No. 1 (January-March, 2019), pp. 26-41.

Gallegos Arias, José & Mercé Gandía, José. Iglesia y Convento de San Francisco: Una Historia para el Futuro. Quito: Instituto Nacional de Patrimonio Cultural, 2011.

Gento Sanz, Benjamin. 'The History and Art of the Church and Monastery of San Francisco de Quito', The Americas, Vol. 4, No. 2 (October, 1947), pp. 175-194.

Gento Sanz, Benjamin. Historia de la obra constructiva de San Francisco desde su fundación hasta nuestros días 1535–1942. Quito: Imprenta Municipal, 1942.

Moreno, Agustín. Fray Jodoco Rique y Fray Pedro Gocial: Apóstoles y Maestros Franciscanos de Quito. Quito: Ediciones Abya-Yala, 1998.

Pérez Abad, Antolín. Los Franciscanos en América. Madrid: Editorial MAPFRE S.A., 1992, p. 203.

Stevenson, Robert. La Música en Quito 2nd ed. Quito: Banco Central del Ecuador, 1989, p. 7.

Stevenson, Robert. 'Music in Quito: Four Centuries', The Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 43, No. 2 (May, 1963), pp. 247-266.

Notes on the Inventory: 
The index for EC-QP16BSF18 was prepared by Jesus Estevez Monagas at the Universidad San Francisco de Quito USFQ.
Complete / partial inventory: 
Full source / fragment: 
Fragment or Fragmented