GB-Lbl Add. 57337
Imperfect Pontifical and Benedictional written at a southern English scriptorium, probably Canterbury, at the end of the 10th century or the first quarter of the 11th century. Adiastematic 'Anglo-Saxon' notation, the work of at least 8 scribes, with some 'Breton' notation on f.6. Text in Style-II Anglo-Caroline miniscule by scribe of Arenburg Gospels (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library, M. 869). Heavily glossed, interlinearly and in margins, both occasionally containing notation. Multicoloured initials in red, orange, green, blue, and brown. 144 Parchment folios (ff.ii + 144). folios i-ii are remains of a medieval limp vellum binding. Early modern wrappings bound in GB-Lbl MS Add. 57337/1. Dimensions: 31.5 x 28.5 cm. Original collation not known. Rebound by British Library in 1978. Collation as assessed during disbinding: 1 five, 2-5⁸, 6⁸ wants 3, 7⁸, 8⁸ wants 3, 9⁸ wants 8, 10-12⁸, 13⁸, 14⁸ wants 1, 15-18⁸, 19 two.
Liturgical occasions: 
Ff. 1r-102v, Pontifical (begins imperfect): 1r, Dedication of a Church; 18r, Mass for the Dedication of a Church; 22r, Night Office for the Dedication of a Church; 29v, Lauds and Vespers for the Dedications of a Church; 29v, Homily for the Dedication of a Church; 34r, Consecration of a Cemetary; 36v, An Ordination series; 46r, Ordination of a Bishop; 50r, Ordination of ann Archbishop by Another; 51v, Blessing of a Chest; 53v, Restoration of a Sacred Place; 54v, Mass for the Restoration of a Sacred Place; 56r, Consecration of the Oil; 57r, Consecration of a King; 63v, Consecration of a Queen; 64r, Mass for the Ordination of a Monarch; 65r, Consecration of a Cross; 67r, Consecration of a Church-Bell; 69r, Blessing of the a Virgin; 72r, Blessing of the Garments of a Widow; 72v, Blessing of a Widow; 73v, For the Shaving of the Hair and Beard; 74r, Mass for an Ordeal by Water; 77r, Adjuration by Water; 78v, Adjuration by Iron or Boiling Water; 80v, Exorcism of Bread and Cheese; 82r, Blessing for all [other] things you might want to bless; 82r, Blessing of a Vessel; 83r, Blessing of a Well, of Grapes or Beans; 83v, Blessing of New Crops, Prayer Against Lightening; 84r, Prayer Concerning Demons (begins imperfect), Exorcism of Salt; 88v, Ordination of an Abbot; 92r, Blessing of a Monastery; 96r, Blessing for the Palm’s Branches; 98r, Episcopal Absolution. Ff. 103r-144v, Benedictional: 103r temporale (ends imperfect).

GB-Lbl Add. 57337, also known as the 'Anderson' or 'Brodie' pontifical, was written at a southern English scriptorium around the turn of the 11th century. Glosses in a southeastern dialect of Old English, added soon after the manuscript was written, suggest that it spent time at an institution in the Southeast of England, probably one of the two Canterbury minsters, either Christ Church or St. Augustine's. Although there are signs of further use during the 11th century, the book's history after its compilation is completely unknown until the early 18th century, during which time it was owned by Hugh Anderson (d.1749), minister of Drainie, Morayshire in northeastern Scotland; his name is inscribed on f.1r. Although its movements during the intervening centuries are again unknown, in 1970 the manuscript was discovered in the stables of Brodie Castle in a carton of books. Despite suffering rodent and water damage, the book is mostly complete and in good condition.

Although textually similar to other Canterbury pontificals like 'The Dunstan Pontifical' (F-Pnm Lat. 943) and 'The Samson Pontifical' (GB-Ccc MS 146), MS 57337 does include some less-common additions to the Church dedication ordo, including ceremonial actions to be performed if a church is wooden ("Si vero lignea fuerit...", f.7v). The benedictional portion of MS 57337 (ff.103r-144v) is also incomplete, ending imperfectly with the feast of St. Andrew (f.144v); What survives of MS 57337's benedictional is textually similar 'The Benedictional of St. Æthelwold' (GB-Lbl Add. MS 49598), although MS 57337 does include one newly-composed alternate benediction for All Saints' Day (f.143) not found in 'The Æthelwold Benedictional.' The similarity between these two benedictionals may indicate that Winchester practice was becoming more influential on Canterbury practices ca.1000 and is not necessarily conclusive evidence that MS 57337 was written at Winchester. The benedictional portion also includes blessings for English SS Cuthbert (f.113v), Augustine of Canterbury (f.139r), Æthelthryth (f.139v), and Swithun (f.141r).

Notable musical contents include a partially-notated copy of the church dedication ordo (ff.1-17v), it's mass (ff.18r-21v), and a monastic version of its Night Office (ff.21r-29v). MS 57337 also includes a notated version of the English coronation antiphon, Firmetur manus Tua (f.57r). Furthermore, several antiphons for the church dedication ordo are of Anglo-Saxon composition: examples include Aedificavit moyses (f.9r), Ab oriente porte tres (f.18r), and Introibo ad altare (f.6v).

Selected bibliography: 

Source Catalogues

  • Gneuss, Helmut and Michael Lapidge. Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: a bibliographical Handlist of manuscripts and manuscript fragments written or owned in England up to 1100. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014) No. 302.
  • Hartzell, K.D. Catalogue of Manuscripts Written or Owned in England up to 1200 Containing Music. (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2006) No. 125.

Secondary Literature

  • Conn, Marie A. “The Dunstan and Brodie (Anderson) Pontificals: An Edition and Study.” PhD diss., University of Notre Dame, 1993.
  • Dumville, David N. Liturgy and the Ecclesiastical History of Late Anglo-Saxon England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1992.
  • Keefer, Sarah Larratt. "Looking at the glosses in London, Bl Additional 57337 (The Anderson Pontifical)" Anglia Vol. 116 (1998): 215-222.
  • Kozachek, Thomas. "The Repertory for Dedicating Churches in the Middle Ages: Music, Liturgy & Ritual." PhD diss., Harvard University, 1995.
  • Kozachek, Thomas. "Tonal Neumes in Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Saxon Pontificals," Plainsong and Medieval Music 6 (1997): 119-41.
  • Olson, Brayden. "Melodic Variance in Anglo-Saxon Pontificals." Master's thesis, Dalhousie University, 2020.
  • Prescott, Andrew. "The Structure of English- Pre-Conquest Benedictionals," The British Library Journal 13 (1987): 118-58.
  • Stokes, Peter A. English Vernacular Minuscule from Æthelred to Cnut c.990-c.1035. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2014.
Notes on the Inventory: 
The index and description for GB-Lbl Add. 57337 was prepared by Brayden Olson (Dalhousie University).
Complete / partial inventory: 
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Full source / fragment: 
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