GB-Ccc MS. 146
Probably written at Christ Church, Canterbury, although Old Minster, Winchester has also been suggested. Original layer contains a combined pontifical and benedictional written in the early-eleventh century. (pp.61-318). Two supplements added at Worcester between 1096 and 1112 (pp.1-60 and pp.319-30). Text of original portion in Anglo-Caroline minuscule by a single scribe; text of supplements added by several hands. Some additions made by Hemming of Worcester. 'Anglo-Saxon' notation added in the mid-eleventh century; 'Breton' notation above some psalm incipits in original layer; some 'Anglo-Norman' notation in original layer and supplements. Interlinear and marginal glosses, corrections, plurals, and musical notation throughout. Rubrics in orange, green, and red. Ff.167 (31+129+7), 31 x 19 cm (c. 24.6 x 14 cm). mostly 27 lines to a page. Vellum hair/flesh sides arranged HFHF. Rebound 1748-50. modern binding by J.S. Wilson & Son in 1952. Collation: 1⁴, 2⁸, 3⁴, 4⁸, 5⁸ wants 8 || 6-15⁸, 16⁸ +1 after 8, 17-21⁸ || 22⁸ wants 8. Foliation: ff.a-b+i + pp.1-332 + ff.c-d

Sometimes called 'The Samson Pontifical', the original layer of GB-Ccc MS. 146 (pp.61-318) contains an imperfect pontifical and benedictional probably written at one of the Canterbury Minsters, probably Christ Church, around the turn of the eleventh-century. However, some suggest on the basis of its liturgical contents that the manuscript was instead written at Old Minster, Winchester. The manuscript was moved to Worcester at some point in the eleventh-century. It was certainly at Worcester by 1096 when it received its two supplemental portions (pp.1-60 and pp.319-30) which include formulae professing obedience to Bishop Samson of Worcester (1096-1112) and to the church of Worcester (pp.52, 53). These supplements also include materials intended to update some ceremonies already present in the original portion of the manuscript. MS 146 may have been at Worcester before 1096, at which point the original layer probably received most of its musical notation.

Musical contents include a Canterbury recension of the church dedication ordo, a fully-notated mass for the restoration of a church/sacred place ("missa in reconcilatione ecclesie", pp.96-8), and an unnotated copy of the of the second recension coronation ordo. The first Worcester supplement (pp.1-60) also includes additional chants for the church dedication ceremony written in an 'Anglo-Norman' hand (p.60) and fully-notated versions of several chants of Anglo-Saxon composition: Aedificavit moyses (p.79), Domine ad te dirigatur (p.13), and Exsurgat deus ad nostri (p.13) are notable examples.

The original portion of MS 146 is textually similar to other Canterbury pontificals like 'The Dunstan Pontifical' and 'The Anderson Pontifical', although MS 146 does diverge at points. The manuscript also shares materials with GB-Ccc MS 442 ('The Red Book of Darley'), a sacramentary/ritual copied at Winchester in the 1060s. Further Winchester connections can be found in the benedictional portion of the manuscript: benedictions for Winchester saints: SS Ælfheah I (p.249), Swithun (pp.256, 257), and Æthelwold (pp.258, 260, 264); a benediction referencing Old Minster, Winchester ("...Wentana veteris coenobii...", p.232); and benedictions for other English Saints: SS Cuthbert (p.249), Augustine of Canterbury (p.253), Æthelthryth (p.253), and Birinus (p.274). One benediction originally for St. Æthelwold (p.264) has been altered to include St. Egwin (Bishop of Worcester, 693-717), presumably for use at Worcester. The Winchester inclusions have led some to attribute MS 146 to Old Minster, Winchester. The Worcester supplements include an additional blessing for SS Egwin and Oswald (p.323). Whether these Winchester elements suggest an origin at Winchester or are signs of Winchester influence at Canterbury is subject to debate.

Selected bibliography: 

Source Catalogues

• Gneuss, Helmut and Michael Lapidge. Anglo-Saxon Manuscripts: a bibliographical Handlist of manuscripts and manuscript fragments written or owned in England up to 1100. (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2014) No. 46.

• Hartzell, K.D. Catalogue of Manuscripts Written or Owned in England up to 1200 Containing Music. (Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 2006) No. 27.

Secondary Literature

• Dumville, David N. Liturgy and the Ecclesiastical History of Late Anglo-Saxon England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press, 1992.

• Gittos, Helen. Liturgy, Architecture, and Sacred Places in Anglo-Saxon England. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

• Kozachek, Thomas. "The Repertory for Dedicating Churches in the Middle Ages: Music, Liturgy & Ritual." PhD diss., Harvard University, 1995.

• Olson, Brayden. "Melodic Variance in Anglo-Saxon Pontificals." Master's thesis, Dalhousie University, 2020.

• Prescott, Andrew. "The Structure of English-Pre-Conquest Benedictionals," The British Library Journal 13 (1987): 118-58.

• Rankin, Susan. “Neumatic Notations in Anglo-Saxon England,” in Musicologie Médiéval: Notations et séquences: actes de la Table ronde du C.N.R.S. à l'Institut de Recherche et d'Histoire des Textes, 6-7 septembre 1982, edited by in Michel Huglo, 129-44. Paris: H. Champion, 1987.

• Rankin, Susan. "Some Reflections on Liturgical Music at Late Anglo-Saxon Worcester," in St. Oswald of Worcester: Life and Influence, edited by Nicholas Brooks and Catherine Cubitt, 325-48. London: Leicester University Press, 1996.

• Sole, Laura M. "Some Anglo-Saxon Cuthbert Liturgica: The Manuscript Evidence," Revue Bénédictine 108 (1998): 104-44.

Notes on the Inventory: 
The index and description for GB-Ccc MS 146 was prepared by Brayden Olson (Dalhousie University).
Complete / partial inventory: 
complete inventory
Full source / fragment: 
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