D-WI1 2 lower pastedown (fragment)
Single parchment leaf from the fifteenth- or sixteenth-century binding of the Riesencodex, which contains almost all of Hildegard of Bingen’s writings and musical compositions. Twelfth-century Germanic neumes on four-line staves; coloured lines indicate C- and F-clefs. Damaged in some places, with faded rubrics, text, and musical notation; holes on fragment come from metal bosses from the Riesencodex binding cover. Monastic cursus. Leaf dimensions are 452x285 mm (similar to the Riesencodex), with 26 staves on the recto side of the folio and 25 staves on the verso.
Liturgical occasions: 
Ff. 1r-1v: Winter Temporale. 1r, Passion Sunday; 1v, Ferial Office; 1v, Saturday in Passiontide; 1v, Palm Sunday.

The D-WI1 2 lower pastedown fragment has a south-Germanic provenance as well as liturgical and musical features shared with other twelfth-century Benedictine houses. Liturgical contents include Office chants for part of Passion Sunday, the weekday liturgy of Passion week, and part of Palm Sunday; the fragment was originally from an Antiphonal. Not only do manuscripts from other southern-Germanic monasteries contain similar chants for these days in Passiontide, including shared Feria 2 antiphons, but the unusual invitatory "Nolite obdurare" on folio 1r seems to appear only in manuscripts from certain monastic houses in southern-Germanic regions (including Weingarten, Zwiefalten, and Sponheim), implying a particular liturgical connection between these communities. Additionally, both verso and recto sides indicate differentiae with both tonary letters and musical formulae, a feature specific to south-German sources such as the Gottschalk antiphoner from Lambach, Austria. Shared characteristics with folios in the Riesencodex include a twelfth-century or slightly earlier/later style of musical notation; nevertheless, features of the D-WI1 2 upper pastedown bifolium (see inventory and manuscript description for D-WI1 2 fragment, upper pastedown) do not support a provenance of Rupertsberg, where Hildegard of Bingen (1098-1179) established a female Benedictine monastic house. It is instead likely, based on a Latin colophon in the upper pastedown, that this lower pastedown came from an antiphonal used at either Johannisberg or Georgenclause. The inclusion of both of these fragments in the rebinding of the Riesencodex contributes to a deeper understanding of its unique history as well as the liturgical climate of which Hildegard was a part.

Selected bibliography: 

Bain, Jennifer. "Digital Analysis of Chant Transmission: A Case Study of 2 Fragments from the Riesencodex." Fragmentarium Video Conference, May 28th, 2021. Youtube video, 49:13.

Bain, Jennifer. "Traces of Liturgy: Analysing Manuscript Fragments from the Binding of the Riesencodex." Unpublished manuscript, 2020.

Pfau, Marianne Richert, and Stefan J. Morent. Hildegard von Bingen: Der Klang des Himmels. Europäische Komponistinnen I. Cologne: Böhlau Verlag, 2005, p.142.

Notes on the Inventory: 
The inventory for D-WI1 2 lower pastedown (fragment) was completed by Jennifer Bain (Dalhousie University), with editorial assistance by Lucia Denk (Dalhousie University) and proofreading by Debra Lacoste (University of Waterloo).
Other editors: 
Full Texts Entered by: 
Melodies Entered by: 
Complete / partial inventory: 
complete inventory
Full source / fragment: 
Fragment or Fragmented